Monday 9 December 2013

Do children need to be perfect or just need perfect praise?

We welcome Natasha Hallam to our blog team:

After recently reading an article by Hanen “Good Job! Is praising your children a good idea?” it got me thinking about how much or how little we really do praise our children. Although the article suggested that everyday phrases such as “good boy, well done and awesome” can actually lead to negative implications, I am still a firm believer in praise! And feel that since working with children with speech, language and communication needs, that praise has become an important expect of their progress journey.
But I question as to whether, as a society, we are really using praise as much as we think we are? And is this praise actually benefiting them in any useful way?
After reading the article I was surprised to find that there are in fact two different types of praise and can now see 
Hanen’s point of view:

1.     Person praise – whereby praise such as “good girl and you won” is seen to judge the child’s personality or intelligence. This is focused only on a perfect performance and can lead to a reduction in motivation if pressure to achieve is put on the child.

2.     Process Praise – focuses more on the child’s behaviour and the actual effort they are putting into the task “You are trying really hard with that colouring”. This type of praise is effective in improving motivation, performance and boosting self-esteem.

Of course we all want are children to be confident, hard-working and be able to take on new challenges; so maybe the question is not so much “is praise good?”, but more about “is the way we praise good?”

Here are some top tips to Perfect Process Praising from Hanen!

1.     Each activity should always leave the child with a positive experience – no matter how big or small the achievement may appear, there will always be something to praise.

2.     Don’t correct – when it comes to a communication difficulty it can be very detrimental to self-esteem if the child is aware of the fact they are not saying it right. However nicely you say “no say it like this please”, what you are really saying is “no not like that, like this”.

3.     Modelling – instead of correcting, it is much more beneficial to just give the correct model; if the child says “it’s a horse” just say “yes it is like a horse, this one is a donkey”.

4.     Don’t overdo it – praise must always be sincere and when it becomes meaningless it will lose its effect.

5.     Limit Praise – once people get praising it soon becomes just a habit, you don’t need to praise everything so if the child is fully attending to an activity, then the activity should be its own reward.

6.     Don’t just say it, Do it! – when a child who struggles to communicate says “bubb” for “bubbles”, don’t just say “great talking” actually give her the bubbles, as this highlights that her communication attempt was effective.

7.     Praise Failure – but carefully; if a child is only praised when they have succeeded then praise becomes negative if they are constantly reminded of their mistakes. However, even children don’t like to be pitied so instead of saying “you tried your best”, try and focus on what they did achieve “you were so determined”.
8.     Attend to Positive behaviour – encourage good behaviour rather than just success, even if a child is struggling with an activity you can still use encouraging praises such as “ you are doing really good sharing” to make a positive experience.

9.     Ignore the Negative – small children are bound to fidget or find it hard to sit still, but ignored behaviour is likely to decrease.

 This is not to say that when children do something that is deemed as inappropriate behaviour such as; hitting another child, we should simply ignore it. No, children need to learn boundaries from an early age.

What I am saying is that when the situation is due to a communication difficulty – it is always better to provide a positive model then negative reinforcement.

Good Luck and get Praising!

By Natasha Hallam

Have  a look at the Hanen website for lots of practical tips

Sunday 24 November 2013

Are you a teacher with a hoarse voice or sore throat today?

I've read so many FaceBook posts today from teachers who have a sore throat  or hoarse voice I thought I'd better post this:
Things TO DO if you have a sore throat or hoarse voice
·         DO use your voice quietly but NOT a whisper – whispering can be damaging to your voice because it puts the vocal cords under a great deal of stress.

·         DO cut down on talking but do not stop speaking all together. Unless you have been advised by a health care professional to totally rest your voice for a period of time, it’s necessary to keep the muscles involved in speaking fit and healthy by speaking regularly but quietly.

·         DO drink plenty of soft drinks to keep your throat/mouth moist: water is especially good (healthy adults should drink around two litres per day) but diluted pure fruit juices are also useful – it’s best to avoid fizzy drinks that contain caffeine and/or too much sugar.

·         DO eat plenty of fruit – fleshy, watery fruits such as peaches, pears and grapes are ideal.

·         DO relax and try not to worry about your voice. Put aside some time each day for relaxation – this will require a minimum of 20 minutes.

·         DO be aware of changes in your surrounding atmosphere, e.g. hot, cold, smoky. Try to keep your larynx and neck at an even temperature by wrapping up against the cold.

·         DO keep the air in rooms humid. In centrally heated rooms, keep a bowl of water on a table or on the windowsill above the radiator, or throw a wet towel on the radiator, so that the air is not too dry. Open a window to allow air to circulate. [CAUTION: DO NOT BLOCK AIR VENTS ON HEATING EQUIPMENT.]

·         DO watch your dietary habits. Avoid a lot of milk and starchy foods, as these can thicken the mucous in the mouth and throat.

·         DO try to understand what makes your voice good for you and what makes it poor. Be aware of your voice as often as you can.

·         DO regular physical exercise – this will especially help your breathing. IF YOU ARE IN ANY DOUBT ABOUT YOUR FITNESS LEVELS, ALWAYS CONSULT YOUR DOCTOR BEFORE BEGINNING A NEW EXERCISE SCHEDULE.

·         DO inhale steam – this will help relax and lubricate your vocal cords. You can do this either (1) over a bowl of hot water with a towel over your head (BE CAREFUL NOT TO SCALD YOURSELF), (2) by using a ‘facial sauna’, or (3) by lying for 20 minutes in a hot bath, so that the room fills with steam. Breathe regularly and evenly through your mouth. Do this twice a day for 5 minutes each time – once in the morning and once before going to bed.

·         DO any voice exercises you may have been given when you have plenty of time, not when you are rushed. Concentrate when you are doing them. There are no short cuts to improving your voice – it’s one step at a time.
Things NOT to do
·         DON’T shout or try to raise your voice, and don’t force it in any way. No singing whilst the voice is poor.

·         DON’T continue speaking for long periods if you have laryngitis or a sore throat. You will need to rest your voice and give it time to recover.

·         DON’T drink too much coffee, strong tea or soft drinks with high caffeine content – the caffeine has a drying effect.

·         DON’T drink too much alcohol, especially spirits – the alcohol has a similar drying effect to caffeine and causes irritation.

·         DON’T keep coughing or clearing your throat. If throat clearing has become a habit you need to (1) become aware of when you are tempted to clear your throat, then (2) try taking a sip of water, (3) if this doesn’t work then try a ‘firm swallow’, (4) if this still hasn’t worked then carry out a ‘dry’ cough.

·         DON’T smoke. Smoking is generally bad for your health and it can severely impair your voice.

·         DON’T suck ‘acid drops’ or harsh sweets – if you are thirsty, drink instead.

·         DON’T drink liquids when they are too hot – let them cool a little. If you can manage it, drinking the occasional ice cold drink can be helpful...but not too many.

·         DON’T try to talk above a lot of background noise. Avoid noisy places. If your lifestyle is such that you cannot avoid noisy places then you need to develop strategies for dealing with this. For example, instead of shouting across a room to attract someone’s attention, go over to them before you speak; at home, don’t shout upstairs for people, go upstairs and talk to them there.

·         DON’T suck lozenges containing menthol or eucalyptus oil if you have a sore throat – these have a drying effect. If you are able, take a spoonful of runny honey instead. If your sore throat is painful and you do need to suck a medicated lozenge or use a spray (such as StrepsilsUltra Chloroseptic), remember that they typically have an anaesthetic effect to reduce the pain. You will, therefore need to rest your voice for about an hour after use so that you do not unduly irritate your vocal cords. IF THE SYMPTOMS OF A SORE THROAT DO NOT GO AWAY AFTER A TWO WEEK PERIOD YOU SHOULD CONSULT YOUR DOCTOR.

·         DON’T let tensions build up. Follow a proper relaxation and exercise programme. Share your concerns by talking to others.

Sunday 17 November 2013

Early Words Together: can you help me please? I need volunteers for this great project.

We are looking for volunteers to help with this very worthwhile initiative. No experience necessary as all training given. You would only be required to pass a safeguarding check, as I'm sure you'd understand is essential for anyone working with children.

Please ring Kerry on 01543 421830   or Becky 01922 415632

Or email or

Wednesday 30 October 2013

Are you a parent in Staffordshire Moorlands?

We are delighted to announce that our Smart talkers Pre-School communication groups will be coming to Staffordshire Moorlands. We will be running 2 different groups, Small Talkers and Chatter Tots:

Small Talkers to help prepare children for school. We work on everything a child needs to become a confident successful communicator. This is really important as language skills are the best predictor of success at school. These are for children aged 3 and 4 years.

Cheddleton Children’s centre
Mondays 1.00 -1.45pm
Beresford Children’s centre
Wednesday 9.30 -10.15am
Cheadle Children’s centre
Wednesdays 1.00 -1.45pm

Chatter Tots which is a fun sessions using play, stories, songs and games to promote early communication skills. Ages 0-3 years

 Cheddleton Children’s centre
Mondays 2.00 -2.45pm
Beresford Children’s centre
Wednesday 10.30 -11.15am
Cheadle Children’s centre
Wednesdays 2.00 -2.45 pm

The groups will be run by Tasha Hallam, who is a qualified speech and language therapist. They will cost just £2.50 per child. Places are allocated on a first come-first served basis and can be booked here or ringing Tasha on 0780 7068951.


Monday 28 October 2013

The power of snack time.

During some of our Smart Talker pre-school groups we like to include a snack time. During which, children are encouraged to sit around a table together to enjoy a drink and healthy snack. This isn’t just so we can have a rest and parents can have a good chat with their friends. It is actually a fantastic and powerful opportunity to encourage communication.
This situation provides children with the following opportunities:
·        having a good reason to communicate i.e. the motivation of food or drink
·        making a choice of snack and drink which is really important
·         Increasing their confidence

So what should we be doing?

·        Working on language and communication skills is most effective when done in real, everyday situations. We need to make sure we are giving a child a reason to communicate, an opportunity and a means. (The means can be pointing first, then answering a forced alternative e.g. ‘do you want water or juice?’, ‘... banana or raisins’ etc. Put the one you think he/she wants last to begin with so he can copy easily at first.  
·        When you are offering them a choice of snack or drink, get down on their level; make sure you have their attention by saying their name first, or tapping them on the arm.
·        Try and only give them a little bit at a time so they have to ask for more. The word ‘more’ is a good word to build from 1 to 2 words; e.g. ‘more juice’, ‘more banana’ etc. Be careful to look out for non-verbal cues as some children may not feel confident to ask for more, or have the language skills or vocabulary to do it. For example, a child may look in your direction holding out their cup, I would respond positively to this communicative attempt and model the language to the child i.e.       ‘ you would like more juice, X would like more juice’; repeating key words i.e. juice will really help your child  learn new vocabulary.
·        A further point, although it is lovely for us to hear children expressing their P’s and Q’s, this can be very confusing and hard for some children. If a child is saying single words it means that they are at an early stage of language acquisition. If, therefore, you ask them to say 'Please' or 'Ta' before you hand over the required toy, piece of food, drink or whatever, they will be very confused. If you want to encourage a child to put 2 words together, ‘more + biscuit' is more functional, they won't be able to say 'more+biscuit+please' until much later because this is actually 3 words together. (please read Libby Hill’s blog for more information on please and thank you,
·        Snack time provides an opportunity for children to request something in the best way they can, and push them to do a little more in a safe and motivating way. Therefore, working on their expressive language skills.
·        Children will also benefit from the social aspects of eating together, such as turn taking. If you take time to watch and listen, you will often see children sharing their snacks, or talking together.

One of the biggest causes of language delay today is that we don't expect enough of our children and we give them what they want without making them work for it. We take away the opportunities and reasons to communicate so their means of communicating doesn't need to progress.

 Take a step back and see every day activities as opportunities for communication...
So don't just provide food and drink, use snack or mealtime to help your child's language skills!
We can show you how if you come to one of our sessions

Georgina White

Friday 25 October 2013

Come and join us on the Early Words programme in Lichfield and South Staffs

The National Literacy trust is  working with 12 Local Authorities to trial a package of support that will help children’s centres to identify families in need of support around early home learning. Small Talk is delighted to be co-ordinating this is the Lichfield and South Staffordshire areas. The families we aim to work with do not currently attend or access children’s centre services beyond universal services such as health checks.

The identified families will be supported to improve their home learning by working with trained community volunteers. The families will also take part in a book choice session and will be able to choose up to 3 books. In focussing on improving and increasing early home learning we are supporting families to increase their child’s school readiness and future attainment.

By March 2015 we will have contributed to the development of a package that can be adopted by other Authorities and that will include:

• Training for staff from a variety of referral agencies (health visitors, housing officers etc) to embed a set of home learning indicators into data they already collect (but not creating new bureaucratic systems!)
• Stakeholder mapping support and new partners for children’s centres
• Training for children’s centre staff to use early home learning indicators (EHLIs) and referral information to successfully attract identified families to their services
• Training for children’s centre staff to coordinate our community volunteering
programme and run book choice / book gifting sessions
• Promotion of referrals from the beneficiary parents
The success of the identification framework is very much reliant on positive and
open local partnerships – between Local Authority frameworks and with the
families. What is effectively a process of identifying and supporting certain families
to provide quality home learning environments for their children obviously requires
a high level of sensitivity and should be a positive rather than negative experience
for the families.

The aim is that home visiting professionals and others understand more about the
home learning environment, why it is important to their own work and to wider local
outcomes and how they can talk and work with families in a positive way that leads 44
families to access appropriate and meaningful support. At the same time, we will
be providing children’s centres with skills and knowledge that will help them to attract new, relevant families to their services.

What Small Talk will be doing:
Recruiting and training volunteers, then matching them with the families and overseeing the 6 week support programme. We will also run the book choice /book gifting session (funded by Benoy Foundation). At the end of the 6 week programme the families will be supported to refer others into the programme and encourage them to attend the children’s centre.

What we need you to do:
Attend the training sessions
Support the families over the 6 week period

We'd love you to be  apart of this exciting project. Please email us for an application form on if you are interested

Wednesday 16 October 2013

Bad parenting: the root of all evil?

A controversial statement by Sir Michael Wilshaw, OFSTED's Chief Inspector, cites bad parenting as the root of society's problems as reported on in:

What do you think? Is he right, are we to blame or is this another attack on parents designed to make us feel more guilty than we already do? I'd love to know your thoughts...........

Sunday 13 October 2013

Using music with your child with ASD

When Franky and I worked at Longdon Hall, which was a residential special school for children ASD and complex communication difficulties, we worked very closely with music therapists. We saw how music could be used to calm, soothe and motivate but also as a powerful means of working on communication skills.

Georgina brought this article, by Ryan Judd, to my attention this week. It makes interesting reading for parents wanting to use music with their children

Ryan Judd is a board certified music therapist with a master's degree in Music Therapy. He has been in private practice and specializing in children with special needs for more than 13 years. Ryan is known for his ability to connect with and motivate the most challenging of clients through music, humor and drama. Ryan is also the founder of The Rhythm Tree, which is dedicated to educating parents, therapists and teachers on how to use music to help children with special needs learn, grow and thrive. Ryan has an educational video blog and has developed an award winning DVD and Music Kit for Children with Special Needs. You can learn more at

Thursday 10 October 2013

Small Talk Speech and Language Therapy comes to Derbyshire

Georgina White, speech and language therapist is very excited to be leading Small Talk Speech and Language Therapy in Derbyshire; as she lives in the area. ‘I am particularly excited as I know what great results Small Talk Speech and Language Therapy can achieve as I have been working for Small Talk in the South Staffs area for nearly 12 months; and they have been achieving great results there since 2007.’

Small Talk Speech and Language Therapy are a team of speech and language therapists and assistants who work independently with children, from babies to teenagers. They can deal with a wide variety of speech, language and communication problems including, speech sounds, autism, problems with understanding and expressive language difficulties. They specialise in complex communication and ASD but can see any child about whom a parent is worried. The waiting list is usually less than 2 weeks from initial enquiry.

Small Talk Speech and Language Therapy visit children where they are most comfortable, either in nursery or at home. Georgina believes that this is far better for little ones who may be intimidated by a clinic setting, ‘Sitting with a child on the floor playing with their own toys makes them feel more relaxed so we can establish a rapport much more quickly. This means I can assess the situation more easily.’

Georgina White says, ‘We give parents a choice but, can also support the work of NHS Speech and language therapists.’ This is very important as 40,000 children start school each year without the necessary levels of spoken language (Wright, J., 2008); and a Government report in 2008 showed that this can be as high as 50% of children in some areas (Bercow, J.). But, there is so much that can be done to prevent this and to help when things go wrong.

It is these sorts of concerns and evidence that led Libby Hill to set up the Smart Talkers pre-school communication groups which are for all children to encourage confidence and the best communication possible. Libby Hill says, ‘We can give advice and support to parents of little ones who are not developing their speech and language as expected’. Georgina will be starting Smart Talkers pre-school communication groups soon in Derbyshire; she will also be offering training opportunities for parents and early years practitioners.

To find out more please visit , and for current pre-school communication groups; or please ring 0844 704 5888.

Thursday 3 October 2013

We all know that interacting with children is important, but are we RESPONDING to our child’s interactions?

How do children learn new words and use them correctly? Yes, you got it, from us, the adults; and their peers. But, children can watch and listen to adults on the television and on DVD’s etc. is that just as good? The answer is NO! Children need the response of others to help guide their learning of language and communication.
I was really interested to read the following link the other day:
Detailing a new study by researchers at the University of Washington, Temple University, and the University of Delaware, appears in the journal Child Development; and they have questioned why learning from video has proven to be more difficult for children to learn words. They have found that it's the responsiveness of the interactions that's key: ‘When we respond to children in timely and meaningful ways, they learn -- even when that response comes from a screen.’ i.e. skype.

This also supports my previous blog regarding the fact that mobile phones can be a barrier to successful and effective communication.

It is so important to let children know that their attempts at communication are valued and important! To do that, all you need to do is listen attentively, and respond to what they said. This doesn’t necessarily mean you have to go into elaborate detail of what paint and brush they used to paint their picture in nursery, nor should you just give an uninterested response of ‘that’s nice dear’ etc. Get down on their level, give them plenty of eye contact, use facial expressions and gestures, intonate your voice etc. None of which is rocket science but, it will have wonderful effects on your child’s self-esteem.

As Libby Hill has mentioned previously, Hanen have a great term called 'owling' and we all need to do more of this:

  • Observe
  • Wait
  • Listen
So, take a step back and see every day activities as an opportunity to listen to your child and respond to their communication attempts. You are your child’s ‘model’ of communication!

Georgina White

Monday 30 September 2013

Would you like to be your own boss, do something you love, make a difference AND have fun?.... you can as a Smart Talkers franchisee?

pre-school communication groups

All children can benefit from our award winning pre-school communication groups. They are designed to help develop confident, successful communicators. Spoken language skills are the basis for most educational tasks so the better the speech, language and communication skills the easier they will find it when they start school.

We use puppets, games, stories and songs to make it as fun as possible. We get great feedback from parents, carers and the children themselves! It's not really like working, as it's tremendous fun working with pre-school children.

We have lots of different groups: Small Talkers. Teeny Talkers. Baby Talkers, Chatter Tots and Stories and Songs. There are also lots of other packages for nurseries and projects for schools that we do.

We are looking for franchisees in many areas of the UK or further afield. No experience or qualification required as full training is given. Business support and back-up is an important part of the package. We also have licenses for speech and language therapists so they can run groups in their areas.

We are having an open afternoon so you can find out more::

26th October 2013
2-4 pm
Uttoxeter Fire Station
Cheadle Rd

Places are limited so early booking advised

Friday 27 September 2013

Tell us a joke.........

Voice Box
The communication Trust has teamed up with the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) to launch Voice Box 2013 – a national joke-telling competition designed to raise awareness of the fun and importance of communication.

RCSLT are inviting mainstream primary and special schools in England to work on their own, or with their speech and language therapists, to hold a joke-telling competition between 2nd September and 4th October 2013. You then send RCSLT the winning joke from your school by Monday 7th October and a judging panel will shortlist the 10 best jokes they receive.

RCSLT will invite the shortlisted joke tellers and their parent or guardian to the Houses of Parliament on Monday 28th October for a national final, hosted by The Rt Hon John Bercow MP, Speaker of the House of Commons.
For more information please click here.

Monday 23 September 2013

The confusing terminology used by speech and language therapists, hopefully will become clear.....

I am always conscious of the terminology we, as speech and language therapists use when talking to other professionals and parents, and those terms that we use in our reports. To us, after 3-4 years of training these terms become second nature; and sometimes we can forget that the words we use can seem a little confusing to say the least. So I thought I would define some commonly used words and terms used by speech and language therapists. But first, maybe it would be useful to know what speech and language therapy is, what we do, where we work, with whom we work etc.

Speech and Language Therapy is used to help people that have speech, language, and communication difficulties; it can also be used to help people who have difficulties swallowing, eating and drinking.

The role of a Speech and Language Therapist, or commonly used term SLT, or even SALT within a hospital environment, is to assess and treat speech, language and communication problems in adults and children. With the desired outcome that individuals will communicate to the best of their ability. They may also work with people who have eating and swallowing difficulties.

What type of difficulties will a SLT come across?
       difficulty in producing and using speech
       difficulty understanding language
       difficulty using language
       difficulty with feeding, chewing or swallowing
       a stammer
       a voice problem

Where do SLT’s work?
       Schools (mainstream & special schools)
       Hospitals (inpatients & outpatients)
       Clinics/community health centers
       Clients homes
       Sheltered accommodation
       Prisons, young offenders institutes
       Courts, as a intermediary
       Mental healthcare settings
       Private/independent practice
       Assessment units & day centers

What type of work does an SLT do?
       work directly with children & adults e.g. using games and interactive learning; carrying out exercises e.g. speech exercises, breathing exercises etc.
       provide clients with work to carry out at home
       work with children & adults with similar difficulties in a small group
       provide clients with relevant resources & information
       provide clients with relevant contacts and support with other professionals, co-workers, support groups etc.
       an SLT will also endeavor to provide clients and their parents or carers with emotional support and appropriate skills to help them on a daily basis.
       a large part of a SLT’s role involves working closely with others e.g. teachers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, doctors, nurses, GP’s, psychologists, health visitors, social workers , orthodontists/dentists, dieticians,  audiologists, politicians/government, other SLT’s i.e. team work.

Ok, so what about some of those terms we use, what do they mean?
Attention and Listening is the foundation to all learning. Children must practice, and learn to ‘listen’ and ‘look’ appropriately to control their own focus of attention. The ability to listen and concentrate is an important part of all children’s speech, language and communication development. It is so important to encourage and develop ‘good’ attention and listening skills for all children; especially those that have difficulties in speech and/or language development.
Communication is the exchange of information between two or more people; using verbal and non-verbal means.
Language takes the form of two parts; receptive language is the ability to understand what someone communicates, either through sound (auditory), or visually (reading and interpretation of sign). Expressive language is the ability to formulate a message into words and sentences; which can be spoken, written or signed.
Non-verbal communication (NVC) is the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. For example, your facial expressions, gestures, tone of voice etc. can all convey meaning to our listeners i.e. about how we are feeling; without actually using words. NVC, is influenced by culture and society, and is shaped by experience, observation and practice.
Phonology is the sound system of a language, and the rules for combining these sounds to produce meaningful units of speech.
Play, why do SLT’s look at this? Symbolic play skills are important for language development. It is a lovely way for children to learn about communication, language and other people. A child’s play skills can help to aid a diagnosis, and is the best way to implement therapy as it is fun and interactive!
Pragmatics/social skills refer to the ‘rules’ of language in social situations. It includes the speaker-listener relationship, the context, and the intentions of the communication. Therefore, speech and language are not the only components important for effective communication.
Social interaction skills include:
·         appropriate eye contact,
·         ability to listen,
·          ability to express ourselves,
·          ability to take turns,
·         ability to process what others are saying,
·         ability to initiate a conversation,
·         ability to maintain a conversation
·         ability to close a conversation appropriately,
·         awareness of a listeners feelings,
·         an awareness of the impact of what you are saying on others
·         the use of appropriate gesture, and the ability to understand it
·         the use of appropriate facial expressions, and the ability to understand them
·         ability to understand the intent of the communication, not just the literal interpretation
·         ability to be flexible in using and adapting language in a particular context
Phew, amazing isn’t it? All these things we do all day everyday; and we quite often take it for granted! So how do we do it? Well, all these social interaction skills are culturally determined, and learned through observation, trial and error, and life experience!!
Semantics is the meaning behind the language that is transmitted by words, phrases and sentences.
Speech is the physical production of sounds e.g. p, t k, d etc.

There may be more terms that you have probably heard used by professionals but I hope this clarifies some things for you. My advice would be, if you’re with a professional i.e. doctor, dentist, teacher, SLT etc; and they are using words you find confusing don’t be afraid to stop and ask them what they mean. Sometimes we can forget how ambiguous we can be!

Georgina White